台北、新北的228故事:被強押上車,從此一去不復返
2月28日上午9時,民眾沿路敲鑼打鼓遊行至太平町派出所,圍毆平日仗勢欺人的主管黃某;10時許再至本町(今博愛路)專賣局台北分局圍毆警員致死,打傷4人,焚燒存放火柴、菸酒及汽車、自行車。下午1時民眾湧向長官公署(今行政院)時,竟然被露台上的機關槍掃射打死一兩人。下午3時,台灣省警備總部司令部宣布台北市臨時戒嚴。下午2時,民眾占領新公園內台北廣播電台,向全省廣播。
3月2日,台北附近已開始動亂,台灣大學、延平學院、師範學院、及各中學代表一千人在中山堂開會。11時左右,陳儀通知把「緝煙血案調查委員會」改為「二二八事件處理委員會」。他已私下告訴柯遠芬:「余已電主席速調廿一師一個加強團來台平亂。」
3月3日,台北市臨時治安委員會派新竹大流氓許德輝組織「忠義服務隊」維持治安,還把學生拉進來,叫廖德雄擔任副大隊長。3月4日,台北市恢復秩序。3月5日,蔣介石電告陳儀,「陳長官,已派步兵一團,並派憲兵一營,限本月7日由滬(上海)啟運,勿念。」
3月6日,王添灯擬定《二二八事件處理大綱》,對處理方針(即《三十二條要求》)擬以國、台、客、英、日語同時對中外廣播。3月7日,陳儀怒拒《四十二要求》(註)
關於「三十二條」與「四十二條」的考證請參考此連結
,大罵代表們無恥。
3月8日,憲兵藉口王添灯找人而帶走林桂瑞律師,一去不返。當晚軍隊藉口圓山海軍辦事處被暴徒圍攻而打死一百多名學生。3月9日台北市再宣布戒嚴,林頂立成立「特別行動隊」。當天下午羅斯福路與汀州路之間仙公廟廟會,兵仔出動掃射,闖入民宅濫殺。《大明報》記者艾璐生死於台北橋下。
3月10日,四三八團快速挺進控制台北至基隆之間各要地。晚上起特務開始肅清「市內奸偽」,秘密逮捕國代林連忠及李瑞漢、李瑞峯律師,台北大千酒家頭家杜媽思被兵仔洗劫家中財物未果,下午再被兵仔叫出去打死於路邊。25歲的林進益及一些鄰居在11日被槍決於中山北路(牛埔仔)馬偕醫院附近。10歲的小學生廖心平在延平北路口遭兵仔射殺,台北市參議員陳屋失蹤。一輛軍車駛入金山沿街掃射。3月11日,王添灯、林茂生、李仁貴、徐春卿、陳炘被帶走。淡江中學校長陳能通和教師黃阿統、盧園等三人遇害。
3月12日,《新生報》日文版編輯吳金鍊、總經理阮朝日,台北市參議員黃朝生被捕永遠失蹤。吳鴻麒在下午3點於高等法院上班時被帶走,3月13日,淡水鎮民代表李祖山及林石定被槍決。警總查封《人民導報》、《民報》、《中外日報》等。3月14日,王育霖律師在自宅被帶走。3月15日,在台北教十年北京話的徐征被捕後失蹤。
3月9日,吳南的大哥、三弟、五弟被抓走後,3月10日他和鄰居一起被押至巷口從背後中槍。陳鵬雲參加糾察隊,逃亡1年7個月,後又涉入台灣省工委會案關押15年。建中學生黃守義冤死於路上。廖進平因為批判警察蠻橫,在八里坌碼頭失蹤。他的兒子廖德雄代表學生參加處委會,起先逃亡,而後自首遭關押50多天。
以上僅能列舉一些資料,因為太多人受難了。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,王添灯。黃秀婉與外祖父王添灯特展專題合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,王添灯。黃秀婉與外祖父王添灯特展專題合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
王添灯(1901-1947) 籍貫:台北市 受訪者:黃秀婉 關係:外孫女
外公於日治時期加入台灣文化協會,對政治社會問題,一向直言不諱。戰後擔任台灣省參議員及《人民報導》社長,對時政更不時批評,得罪不少官僚。二二八發生期間,外公參與組織二二八處理委員會,並代表處委會對外宣讀32條要求,3月7日傍晚,外公最後一次向全省人民廣播,宣讀處理大綱及陳儀行政長官拒絕的實情,宣布「我們並無本省、外省之分,我們的目標是要打倒貪官污吏,希望全體同胞繼續奮鬥!」軍隊抵台後,他拒絕眾人勸告去避難,3月11日清晨,被人押上吉普車後音信全無,彷彿人間蒸發,什麼被殺,被燒死都全是傳言。
外公是「為民喉舌」而犧牲的烈士,不是受難者,我們以他為榮,以他為台灣人犧牲而驕傲。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,林茂生。林忠志與祖父林茂生合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,林茂生。林忠志與祖父林茂生合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
林茂生(1887-1947) 籍貫:台北市 受訪人:林忠志 關係:孫子
阿公畢業於日本東京帝大,獲得哥倫比亞大學哲學博士學位。戰後出任台灣大學文學院代理院長及《民報》社長,經常揭露陳儀政府腐敗,雖參加二二八處委會,但無激烈言論,仍被當局視為眼中釘,而遭逮捕後「失蹤」。
我對阿公的印象都是從長輩得來的,父母親只告訴我阿公失蹤了,卻不知為什麼。直到我念高中時,某日父親看電視時大聲批判政府,受黨國教育洗腦的我還質問父親為何如此對政府不敬,父親氣得把他的房門關起來,後來母親終於告訴我阿公是二二八受難者。
作為受難者的第三代,我逐漸理解上一代受難心境。我們要求政府還給我們阿公受難的真相,他到底怎麼了?死,死在哪裡?再多賠償也換回不了阿公的命。政府要面對歷史,要做出交代!
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,林連宗。林信貞與父親林連宗照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,林連宗。林信貞與父親林連宗照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
林連宗(1904-1947) 籍貫:彰化市 受訪人:林信貞 關係:女兒
先父台中一中畢業,日本中央大學法學部畢業,大二即考上行政及司法雙料高考,1931年間台中開業,1945年8月底當三青團第一區隊長、省參議員,1946年當選制憲國大代表赴南京開會。1947年3月6日他被選為二二八處委會常委,3月10日無法搭車回台中,就去好友李瑞漢律師家借宿,傍晚4名特務及憲兵強行帶走李瑞漢、李瑞峯兄弟,先父一併被帶走,從此下落不明。
我是他唯一的女兒,在夢中一直盼望先父歸來,每晚問天空阿爸何時會回家。先母及我每日以淚洗面,我不敢向同學朋友甚至親戚透露先父的消息,如此可恨的政權,把一個忠黨愛國的正直人士弄得至今音信全無地過了65年,你說我不會恨國民黨嗎?
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,阮朝日。阮美姝手捧父親阮朝日照片,後方母親林素畫像為畫家郭柏川所繪。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,阮朝日。阮美姝手捧父親阮朝日照片,後方母親林素畫像為畫家郭柏川所繪。(攝影/潘小俠)
阮朝日(1900-1947) 籍貫:屏東林邊 受訪人:阮美姝 關係:女兒
先父自小聰慧過人,人稱「小孔明」,福島高商(今福島大學)畢業後,返台擔任阮家合股經營「長福商事株式會社」的董事長,並與友人合創屏東信託會社(華南銀行前身)。1932年赴台北任《台灣新民報》販賣部長兼廣告部長,1939年後為監事。期間又投資「朝日式木炭瓦斯發生爐自動車株式會社」,從事汽車製造。
戰後,應聘擔任《台灣新生報》總經理。二二八期間,他因氣喘臥病在床,未曾參加任何活動,卻在3月12日無故被捕失蹤。我還記得當時聽到外面許多社會人士被捕,情勢緊張,回娘家勸父親避風頭。他回答說:「我並沒有做什麼事,又沒有犯罪,為何要逃?」言猶在耳,當天即被捕一去不返,我這一輩子就是努力奔走找出他遇害的真相。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,吳金鍊。吳蕭宏與父親吳金鍊、母親吳黃天賜全家福照片合影,照片右一為年幼吳蕭宏。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,吳金鍊。吳蕭宏與父親吳金鍊、母親吳黃天賜全家福照片合影,照片右一為年幼吳蕭宏。(攝影/潘小俠)
吳金鍊(1913-1947) 籍貫:台北市 受訪者:吳蕭宏 關係:兒子
先父台北師範學校及日本東京青山學院文學部畢業,戰後擔任《台灣新生報》日文版總編。由於日文版經常批判陳儀的失政,1946年10月25日被當局查禁,他改任報社副總編輯。1947年2月27日,憤怒的群眾包圍報社,要求他照實報導事件,他以政府禁止報導事件為由拒絕,群眾揚言火燒報社。李萬居社長遂同意刊登,不料3月12日他被人從報社強行押走,迄今生死不明。幾天後官兵至報社提供我們居住的宿舍,把所有家具、書籍丟在大雨中的路上。
從此母親避談關於父親的事情,我在彰化銀行工作,甚至連同受難者後代的同事也不相往來,並交代子女要謹言慎行,不可談政治。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,蕭錦文。蕭錦文與青年照。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,蕭錦文。蕭錦文與青年照。(攝影/潘小俠)
蕭錦文(1927-) 籍貫:苗栗市 受訪人:蕭錦文 關係:本人
我曾去緬甸當日本兵,二二八期間於台北大明報社,住宿工廠內兼看管工廠。二二八當天我被鑼鼓喧天吵醒,我趕緊到專賣局分局時目睹專賣局「山仔」員工跳進大溝裡,被一些青年用石頭磚塊丟擲的場面。一名在台灣書店的上海人被我叫他別講話,護送他離開。在氣象局前一群警察持槍阻截,隊長反遭一些婦女用木屐痛毆而潰散。3月8日清晨,我突然遭特務逮捕,被刑求逼問社長鄧進益的下落未果,反遭羅織「承印反動傳單」罪名,和其他延平學院學生等人被蒙上黑布押上卡車後,又被載回羈押3個多月。後來得知白崇禧來台,下令「未經審判者不得亂殺」,我才撿回一命。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,鄧進益。呂芳德與父親鄧進益受訪書籍合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,鄧進益。呂芳德與父親鄧進益受訪書籍合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
鄧進益(1911-1996) 籍貫:新北市新莊 受訪人:呂芳德 關係:兒子
家父台北高等商業學校畢業,戰後在樹林開造紙廠,在台北市擁有3家印刷廠。後來板橋林家少爺林子畏要辦報紙,家父參與開辦了《大明報》。他為了歡迎中華民國政府派來行政長官陳儀,還在中山堂演戲一個星期,尤其演出話劇《壁》。並常為二二八前後的學生聯盟印刊物,二二八後有警察及謝娥女醫師通知家父避風頭,不久當局以二二八處委會財政組副組長罪名通緝家父,他與蔣渭川等逃亡中國上海各地,家母及親戚蕭錦文因而被捕。
1948年家父等人隨魏道明省主席回返台,經徐道鄰秘書長陪同赴法院自首才結案。1950年基隆中學校長鍾浩東以發行《光明報》等叛亂案被捕遇害,幾乎又牽連家父,家父回來後常一語不發,只有在極度憤怒時才會幹譙。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,陳能通。連陳嫣婓與父親陳能通照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,陳能通。連陳嫣婓與父親陳能通照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
陳能通(1899-1947) 籍貫:新北市淡水 受訪人:連陳嫣斐 關係:女兒
二二八發生後,父親(時任淡水中學校長)宣布停課。不料3月10日上午,學生郭曉鐘在郵局附近被軍人開槍打死。父親與訓導主任黃阿統立刻趕去收屍,置於體育館內儲藏室。第二天清晨,一隊士兵衝進校長宿舍,把只穿睡衣的父親強行抓走,對面宿舍化學老師盧園聽到有人喊救命,趕來營救,卻遭軍人開槍射中肩膀,血流如注,送醫後不治。黃阿統訓導也趕來,因為他會講北京話,不料也被軍人當場抓走。
我們全家陷入惶恐,祖父陳旺牧師在父親被逮捕時趕緊要他穿一件冬大衣,父親與黃訓導被械送油車口兵營盤問,士兵從他大衣口袋中搜出一張傳單,可能以此作為反政府的證據。3天後,我們全家在簷廊上看到父親坐在卡車內。這是最後一次見到他的臉。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,盧園。盧富與二叔盧園合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,盧園。盧富與二叔盧園合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
盧園(1921-1947) 籍貫:新北市三芝 受訪人:盧富 關係:姪女
二叔念過淡江中學後,1944年自日本長野縣的上田專門學校纖維化學科畢業。戰後回台,在淡江中學教化學。1947年3月11日他原本要訂婚而延遲,當日清晨聽到陳能通校長女兒來求救,他立刻起身走到外圍牆邊,遭兩個兵仔盤問後,用手槍打中右肩,傷及脊骨,用車送至北投急救,17日轉雙連馬偕醫院時,傷勢已惡化,18日不治身亡。
祖父在世經常怨嘆:「駛恁娘(Sai lin nia),一隻尚水的豬仔被掠去。」他是最有才氣的人。當時我才5歲,一切都是聽長輩所述。66年後我們感嘆著如有他,可能有所不同。如今剩下一張照片,由我祭拜。每見他的遺像,不勝哀傷。感謝基金會的好意與協助。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,黃守義。黃守禮與哥哥黃守義照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,台北、新北,黃守義。黃守禮與哥哥黃守義照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
黃守義(1929-1947) 籍貫:台北市 受訪人:黃守禮 關係:弟弟
1947年3月10日上午10時稍前,就讀建國中學高二的二哥,奉家母之命帶四弟黃守智(小學五年)去買早餐。自大正街十條通(現林森北路159巷)家,到林森北路119巷與長安東路一段53巷交叉口時,遇到3個中國兵正在搶路過人身上財物,他們見到身著建中制服的二哥,便叫他過來,當他靠近時竟突然開槍,聽住附近的人說,3個兵一人開一槍並大笑享殺戮之快感。
我們等兵離開後,將二哥遺體抱回家。經清洗詳驗,他身中3槍,一槍自肚臍射入貫穿腹部由後腰出,一槍由右臂射入自後背出,另一槍自右大腿射入由臀部出。三處槍傷皆進入彈孔小而後射出口洞如碗大,確認是用國際法禁用之達姆子彈(Dum Dum Bullet),死狀慘不忍睹。
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The 228 Massacre In Taipei:

"Forced Into A Car, Never To Return"

Seven decades after the 228 Massacre, survivors and relatives in Taipei city and Taipei county recount their experience and anguish.
On February 28th 1947, at 9:00am, a crowd marched loudly to a police dispatch station in Taihei-cho (太平町), surrounded the dispatch chief and beat him up.
Taipei city dwellers were furious with the Chinese Nationalists' economic mismanagement and brazen corruption. The breaking point came on February 27th, when a monopoly bureau agent beat a cigarette vendor in broad daylight, and then shot a bystander while trying to escape a tense showdown between gun-toting agents and the public.
One hour later, the crowd marched to a branch of the Taipei Monopoly Bureau in Honmachi-cho (本町). The bureau agents were outnumbered; the crowd severely injured four agents and beat another to death. They burned down cars and cycles, and then the bureau office, which was full of matches, tobacco and alcohol.
At 1:00pm, they were on their way to the Chief Executive's Office (now the Executive Yuan), but when they arrived, officers fired from the terrace, killing members of the crowd.
Some of the crowd made their way to New Park (now 228 Memorial Peace Park), and at 2:00pm, they occupied the radio broadcast bureau there, and began reporting on-air the turn of events in Taipei; they criticized chief executive Chen Yi (陳儀) for corruption, and giving the people no means of livelihood. At 3:00pm, the Taiwan Garrison Command announced a "temporary martial law".
Chen Yi was struggling to reassert KMT control. He begrudgingly accepted the formation of a Taiwanese-led committee to investigate the events of February 27-28, but gave notice that the group had to be renamed from the "Cigarette and Murder Investigation Committee" (緝煙血案調查委員會) to the "228 Incident Settlement Committee" (二二八事件處理委員會).
Chen also sent a private message to Taiwan Garrison Command's secret police chief of staff Ko Yuan-fen (柯遠芬):
"A telegram has already been sent to Chairman Chiang Kai-shek (蔣介石) to mobilize the 21st Division to strengthen troop numbers in Taiwan and pacify the rebellion."
On March the 2nd, more than a thousand student representatives from Taiwan's higher institutions -- including National Taiwan University, Yanping College and Taiwan Provincial College -- gathered to meet at Zhongshan Hall. They were eager to help the Settlement Committee.
But the KMT looked to exploit the students' zeal. On March the 3rd, the KMT's Taipei provisional public security committee instructed Hsu Te-hui (許德輝) to head a special unit, called the "Loyalty Services Unit" (忠義服務隊). Hsu was a "banshan", a Taiwanese operative loyal to the KMT. He was also involved in the criminal underworld.
The Loyalty Services Unit was tasked with recruiting students to maintain public order, and by all appearances, was in support of the Settlement Committee. But in reality, Hsu was carrying out counter-insurrection activity, and pushed the Taiwanese students to inflame tensions between locals and recent Chinese immigrants.
By March the 4th, things had calmed down in Taipei. But on March the 5th, Chen Yi received a reply from Chiang Kai-shek:
"Chief executive Chen, an infantry group and a military-police group are on their way, and will mobilize from Shanghai on the 7th. Don't worry."
On the 6th, the Settlement Committee met at Zhongshan Hall to draft a series of requests for the KMT that would rectify the events of February 27-28. Ong Thiam-teng (王添灯), a prominent local politician and newspaper editor, was the primary drafter of the "32 Demands", and it was set to be broadcast in five languages: Mandarin Chinese, Taiwanese Hokkien, Hakka Chinese, English and Japanese.
But after the first set of Demands were written up, there were some at Zhongshan Hall who pushed for more radical demands; some suspect KMT agents and agitated students played a role. Chen Yi was furious with the "42 Demands", calling the Settlement Committee "shameless".
Then, a strange incident occurred on March the 8th. The KMT claimed that a mob from the Taipei suburbs "attacked" the Yuanshan Naval Office, forcing the military to retaliate; more than 100 students ages 18 to 19 were killed. An observer who saw the bodies at the scene said none of the youth were carrying arms or showed signs of battle. Some of the youths were believed to be members of Hsu Te-hui's Loyalty Services Unit.
Taipei City once again announced martial law on the 9th. Lin Dingli (林頂立) — a banshan who worked for the KMT's military intelligence bureau — received the go ahead to establish the Special Activities Unit (特別行動隊), a Stasi-like state security unit that would handle extrajudicial executions. That afternoon, troops were dispatched to Hsien-kung Temple market (near present day Shenling Temple), where they entered homes and killed indiscriminately.
By the 10th, the 21st Division's 438th regiment was moving quickly to capture control of the area between Keelung and Taipei. State security officers were instructed to round up "domestic traitors" and secretly arrested members of the Settlement Committee, including Lin Lien-tsung (林連宗), Lee Jui-han (李瑞漢). The next day, they arrested Ong Thiam-teng.
The Taiwan Garrison Command also ordered the People's Herald (人民導報), the Taiwan Minpao (民報), the Chungwai Daily (中外日報) and other newspapers to close operations.
Members of the general public were not spared the KMT's wrath, either:
  • Restaurant owner Tu Ma-su (杜媽思) was robbed of all his possessions by soldiers; the same soldiers then returned in the afternoon to kill Tu in the streets. 10-year-old Liao Hsin-ping (廖心平) was also killed by a soldier on the street.
  • Staff from the Japanese edition of the Taiwan Shin Sheng Daily News disappeared, and so did Taipei city councillors Ng Tiau-sing (黃朝生) and Chen Wu (陳屋).
  • Ta Ming Pao (大明報) journalist Ai Lu-sheng (艾璐生) was found dead under Taipei Bridge.
  • Public prosecutor Ngo Hong-ki (吳鴻麒) was arrested at his high court office.
  • Chen Peng-yun (陳鵬雲) attended protests during 228, then left the country for a year and seven months to escape prosecution. When he returned in 1950, he was sent to Green Island to perform hard labour for 15 years for his role in organizing train worker unions for the Chinese Communist Party's Taiwan Province Working Committee.
  • Liao Chin-ping (廖進平) went missing at Bali port after criticizing the police's overbearing behaviour during 228. His son, Liao Te-hsiong (廖德雄) was a student representative for the Settlement Committee, and was also recruited by Hsu Te-hui's Loyalty Services Unit to agitate Chinese and Taiwanese.
  • Provincial representatives for Tamsui Lin Tzu-shan (李祖山) and Lin Shih-ting (林石定) were executed by gunfire.
The above events can only be a partial list about what happened, because altogether, just too many people suffered.  

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Huang Hsiu-wan with photo of Ong Thiam-teng. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Huang Hsiu-wan with photo of Ong Thiam-teng. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Ong Thiam-teng (王添灯) (1901-1947) Birthplace: Taipei City Interviewee: Huang Hsiu-wan (黃秀婉) Relationship: granddaughter
During the Japanese occupation, grandfather joined the Taiwan Cultural Association (臺灣文化協會), a civic organization that fostered Taiwanese nationalism. He was always blunt about political and social issues. After the war, he served as a Taiwan Provincial Council member. He was also editor-in-chief of the People's Herald, which frequently criticized the government.
After the events of February 27-28, grandfather helped establish the Settlement Committee, and helped draft the 32 Demands.
On March 7, he broadcast the 32 Demands to the Taiwanese public, and said Chen Yi refuses to see the truth of the current situation. "We do not distinguish between Taiwanese (bensheng) and Chinese (waisheng), our goal is to defeat corrupt officials and hope that all of our compatriots will continue to struggle on!" he said.
After the military arrived, he refused advice to go into hiding. In the early morning of the 11th, he was arrested, and put onto a jeep; There was no more news of him, as if he had evaporated from this world. Was he killed, was he burned alive? We have nothing but hearsay. Grandfather was a martyr, he sacrificed himself to be the mouthpiece of the people, and he's not a victim. We are proud of him and proud of his sacrifice for the Taiwanese people.
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Lin Chung-chi with a photo of his grandfather Lin Mosei. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Lin Chung-chi with a photo of his grandfather Lin Mosei. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Lin Mosei (林茂生) (1887-1947) Birthplace: Taipei City Interviewee: Lin Chung-chi (林忠志) Relationship: grandson
Grandfather graduated from the University of Tokyo, and received his Ph.D. from Columbia University. After the war, he became the acting dean for the college of liberal arts at National Taiwan University. He was also the president of the Taiwan Minpao (台灣民報), which regularly exposed the corruption of the Chen Yi government.
He joined the Settlement Committee, but he wasn't part of any the heated arguments going on in Zhongshan Hall; all the same, he was a thorn in the authorities' side.
My impression of grandfather was formed by my elders. Growing up, my parents told me grandfather was missing, but I didn't know why. I remember one day, father was watching TV, and he suddenly started yelling loudly at the government; I was a high school student brainwashed by the party-state regime, I thought, how could father be so disrespectful to the government? My father was so angry that he closed his door. Later on, mother told me that grandfather was a victim of the 228 Massacre.
As a member of the third generation of a victim family, I've gradually learned to understand the suffering of my parents and grandparents generation. We ask the government to give us the truth about grandfather. What really happened to him? Where did he die? There's no compensation that could repay his life. The government must face history and provide a full account!
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Lin Hsin-yu with a photo of her father Lin Lien-tsung. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Lin Hsin-yu with a photo of her father Lin Lien-tsung. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Lin Lien-tsung (林連宗) (1904-1947) Birthplace: Changhua City Interviewee: Lin Hsin-yu (林信貞) Relationship: daughter
Father graduated from Taichung First Senior High School (the best high school in Taichung) and then graduated from the Faculty of Law at Chuo University in Tokyo. In his second year of university, he passed the Executive and Judicial College Entrance Examination. He later opened a firm in Taichung. He was a Taiwan Provincial Assembly member in 1945, and also represented Taiwan in the National Assembly in Nanjing.
On March the 6th, he was selected for the 228 Settlement Committee. He wasn't able to catch the train back to Taichung on the 10th, and stayed at the house of his friend, Lee Ruei-han (李瑞漢). In the middle of the night, four state security officers and military policemen forcibly took away father as well as Lee and his brother, Lee Ruei-feng (李瑞峯). Where they were taken remains unknown.
I am Lin's only daughter, and in my dreams, I imagined his return. Every night, I would pray to heaven asking when my father would come home. Tears would wash over my face. I didn't dare speak of my father's situation to my classmates or friends. This kind of hateful political regime, that took the life of a man who remained loyal and patriotic to the party, and hasn't given his family a shred of information about him for 65 years, how could I not hate this party, the KMT?
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Juan mei-shu holds a photo of her father Juan Chao-jih, with a portrait of her mother Lin Su (林素) painted by Kuo Po-chuan (郭柏川) in back. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Juan mei-shu holds a photo of her father Juan Chao-jih, with a portrait of her mother Lin Su (林素) painted by Kuo Po-chuan (郭柏川) in back. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Juan Chao-jih (阮朝日) (1900-1947) Birthplace: Pingtung, Linbian Township Interviewee: Juan Mei-shu (阮美姝) Relationship: daughter
Since he was little, father was an intelligent person. After graduating from Fukushima Takashi (now Fukushima University), he returned to Taiwan to serve as the chairman of the Changfu Commercial Company. Along with friends, he established the Pingtung Trust Corporation (the predecessor to Hua Nan Commercial Bank, one of Taiwan's largest commercial banks).
In 1932, he moved to Taipei to take charge of sales and advertising at Taiwan New Minpao (台灣新民報). He was made supervisor by 1939. He also had investments in an automobile manufacturing company. He became general manager of the Hsin-sheng Daily News (台灣新生報) after the war.
During the 228 period, he was laid up in bed with asthma complications, and didn't take part in any protests. He was arrested all the same on March the 12th. I still remember in those days how anxious everyone was from all the arrests; the situation was incredibly tense. I went back home that day, and urged my father to stay off the streets. "I didn't do anything, and I didn't commit any crimes. What do I have to run from?" he said. The words were still in my ears when he was arrested that same day. I've spent my whole life trying to find out the truth about his murder.
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Wu Hsiao-hung with family photo of his father Wu Chin-lien and mother Wu Huang Tien-tzu (吳黃天賜). Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Wu Hsiao-hung with family photo of his father Wu Chin-lien and mother Wu Huang Tien-tzu (吳黃天賜). Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Wu Chin-lien (吳金鍊) (1913-1947) Birthplace: Taipei City Interviewee: Wu Hsiao-hung (吳蕭宏) Relationship: son
Father graduated from Taihoku Teacher's College (now National Taipei University of Education) and from the department of literature at Aoyama Gakuin University in Tokyo. After the war, he served as the editor-in-chief of the Japanese edition of the Hsin-sheng Daily News. The paper was critical of Chen Yi, and he was censured by authorities on October 25th 1946; he was later re-appointed as deputy editor.
On February 27th, an angry crowd surrounded the newspaper's office, demanding they cover the events truthfully. He refused on the grounds that the government prohibited reporting of the incident; the crowd then threatened to burn down the Hsin-sheng Daily News' office. Lee Wan-chu (李萬居), the founder of the paper relented, and wrote about 228.
Father was unexpectedly arrested at the office on the 12th, and we don't know how or when he died. A few days later, soldiers came to the Hsin-sheng Daily News dormitory where we lived, and threw all of our furniture and books onto the road in the pouring rain.
After that, my mother avoided talking about father. I work at Changhua Bank, and I have a colleague who's also the descendent of a 228 victim, but we don't have any contact with each other. I'm discreet and cautious when talking about this with my children, and I don't talk about politics.
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Hsiao Chin-wen with a photo of himself in his youth. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Hsiao Chin-wen with a photo of himself in his youth. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Hsiao Chin-wen (蕭錦文) (1927-) Birthplace: Miaoli Interviewee: in his own words
I once served as a Japanese soldier in Myanmar. During the 228 period, I was a reporter for the Ta Ming Pao (大明報). I lived at the company dormitory, and guarded the printing factory part time. On the day of the 28th, I was awoken by a loud clanging sound; I ran to the Monopoly Bureau office and saw young Taiwanese throwing stones and bricks, with Chinese bureau agents diving for safety into a ditch. I told a bookseller from Shanghai who was nearby not to speak, and escorted him out of the area. In front of the Meteorological Office, a group of officers with guns were beaten back by women wielding wooden sandals.
On the morning of March 8th, I was suddenly arrested by a state security officer, accused of printing "reactionary leaflets", and then tortured and interrogated about the whereabouts of Ta Ming Pao founder, Teng Chin-i (鄧進益). After that, they put a black hood over my head, loaded me into a truck, and put me into detention for three months. Some of my classmates at Yanping College were also sent to detention.
When general Bai Chongxi (白崇禧) came to Taiwan, he ordered that "all untried persons must not be killed" and my life was spared.
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Lu Fang-te holds a book that features his father, Teng Chin-i. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Lu Fang-te holds a book that features his father, Teng Chin-i. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Teng Chin-i (鄧進益) (1911-1996) Birthplace: Xinzhuang Interviewee: Lu Fang-te (呂芳德) Relationship: son
Father graduated from Taihoku College of Commerce, and opened a paper mill in Shulin after the war. He had three printing factories in Taipei. Lin Tze-wei (林子畏) of the Banqiao Lin Family wanted to start a newspaper, and they worked to establish the Ta Ming Pao.
After Chen Yi was dispatched to Taiwan, father took part in a number of activities the government took exception to. He helped put on a one act drama at Zhongshan Hall called "The Wall" (壁), a play that examined the economic disparity between the rich and the poor in Taiwan. He also helped student union's print protest materials before and after the 228 Incident.
Shortly after 228, both the police and Hsieh Er (謝娥) -- a prominent female doctor in Taiwan -- urged father to lay low. The authorities ordered his arrest for taking part in the 228 Incident Settlement Committee, and he fled for his life with Chiang Wei-chuan (蔣渭川) to Shanghai; my mother and my relative Hsiao Chin-wen (蕭錦文) were subsequently arrested.
In 1948, father returned to Taiwan and surrendered to the courts. Father was almost implicated in the 1950 arrest of Chung Hao-tung (鍾浩東) a school principal in Keelung accused of inciting an insurrection through the distribution of pro-CCP newspapers. After returning, he almost never spoke of any of this, except when he was especially angry.
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Lien Chen Yu-fei with a portrait of her father, Tan Leng-thong. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Lien Chen Yu-fei with a portrait of her father, Tan Leng-thong. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Tan Leng-thong (陳能通) (1899-1947) Birthplace: Tamsui Interviewee: Lien Chen Yu-fei (連陳嫣斐) Relationship: daughter
After the 228 Incident, father — who was the Tamkang High School principal at the time — announced the suspension of classes. Unexpectedly, on the morning of the 10th, student Kuo Hsiao-chung (郭曉鐘) was shot dead by soldiers near the post office. Father and instructor Ng Ah-thong (黃阿統) immediately rushed to collect his remains and placed it in the storage room of the gymnasium.
The next morning, a group of soldiers rushed to the principal's dormitory and forcibly took away father, wearing only his pajamas. In the teacher's dormitory, Lo Ui (盧園) heard someone calling for help and came to his rescue. The soldiers hit Lo forcefully in the shoulder, blood flowed everywhere, and he later died in hospital. Instructor Ng was also taken away by soldiers; they were then questioned in a garage at a military barracks. Our family was horrified.
They found a leaflet in his coat pocket, which served as evidence of anti-government activities. Three days later, our family saw father sitting in the back of a truck as it drove by. That was the last time we saw his face.
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Lu Fu with a portrait of her second uncle, Lo Ui. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Lu Fu with a portrait of her second uncle, Lo Ui. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Lo Ui (盧園) (1921-1947) Birthplace: Sanzhi Interviewee: Lu Fu (盧富) Relationship: niece
After studying at Tamkang Senior High School, uncle graduated from the department of fiber chemistry at Ueda College in Nagano in 1944. After the war, he returned to Taiwan and taught chemistry at Tamkang Middle School. He had intentions to propose marriage to someone. On March 11th, he heard Tan Leng-thong's daughter call for help, and he rushed to the perimeter wall to meet Tan and the soldiers.
After being interrogated by two soldiers, he was hit hard in the right shoulder by a soldier's handgun, injuring his spine. He was sent to a clinic in Beitou, but after his condition worsened, he was sent to Mackay Hospital in Shuanglian on the 17th. He died on the 18th. When he passed away, my grandfather sighed with grief, "what a slap to our dignity, the most talented member of our family has been snatched from us".
I was only five years old at the time, and everything I heard about the incident came from my elders. 66 years later, we still sigh with grief, wondering what life would be like for our family if he were alive today. Now, all I have left of him is a photo, which I place beside our ancestral tablet. Every time I see his portrait, I cannot bear the grief.
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Huang Shou-li with a portrait of his older brother Huang Shou-yi. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Huang Shou-li with a portrait of his older brother Huang Shou-yi. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Huang Shou-yi (黃守義) (1929-1947) Birthplace: Taipei City Interviewee: Huang Shou-li (黃守禮) Relationship: brother
On the morning of the 10th, my second eldest brother, Shou-yi, and my dear mother took my younger brother, Shou-chi (黃守智) out to buy breakfast. Shou-yi was in his junior year at Jianguo Middle School, and Shou-chi was in the 5th grade.
On their way there, we ran into three Chinese soldiers robbing someone of their possessions; the soldiers spotted the Jianguo Middle School outfit Shou-yi was wearing, and asked him to come closer. As he did, one of the soldiers suddenly opened fire. People at the scene said each soldier fired a shot at him, taking pleasure in killing my brother, and laughing loudly.
After the soldiers left, we carried Shou-yi's lifeless body back home. After cleaning, we found three bullet holes, one shot through the navel, one through his arm, and one through his right thigh. All three gunshot wounds entered as small bullet holes and exited as massive wounds the size of a bowl. Later, we confirmed that they used dum dum bullets (expanding bullets), which are banned under international law. His death was just too terrible to bear.
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