二二八真相
《見證228》口述歷史。(攝影/潘小俠、鍾宜杰)
真相只有一個,而解釋真相卻有各種立場與方法。
「如果沒有我們八年抗戰打敗日本鬼子,哪來台灣光復?」 「你們這些數典忘祖的亡國奴」。
這就是「祖國同胞」對「次等國民」的驕傲心態。
台灣人流淚歡迎一群面黃肌瘦,背著鍋子、雨傘,穿草鞋、衣衫襤褸的祖國大軍,卻驚訝地看到他們隨地大小便、吐痰,不會使用電燈和水龍頭,不會騎腳踏車,吃飯、買東西不付錢的「台灣人解放者」們,實在傻眼。
陳儀一行迅速接收日偽財產110億台幣(當時等於55億美元),20萬戶住宅宿舍,7家銀行及30億日台圓、65座機場、9百多架飛機、2千多輛軍用戰車及卡車、40萬軍備、54萬件軍服;所有現代化的工廠、水力、發電、公路、鐵路、港口,以及18萬1千多甲耕地和全台百分之90以上的山林;加上各地機關、學校、醫院、戲院等等。行政院資源委員會立刻把銀行、保險、金庫、石油、鋼鐵等22個列為國營事業;把電力、肥料、機械、水泥、製紙、製糖等30個列為國省合營;306個為省營(農林、工礦、貿易、交通、土地);97個縣營及19個黨營事業(11家戲院及其他的百貨公司)。一舉奪占瓜分台灣的資源殆盡。
前進指揮所主任葛敬恩侵吞安藤利吉總督孝敬他的120公斤黃金,仍將他以戰犯名義移送南京。接收大員各個「五子登科」(《衣服》料子、房子、車子、金子、女子),各大寺廟一夜之間突然被接收者登記占為己有,演出「乞丐趕廟公」的大醜劇。專賣局長任維鈞回答省參議員質詢時,強辯說樟腦存貨被白蟻吃掉(引起哄堂大笑),上等鴉片被白蟻吃掉70多公斤。台北縣長陸桂祥貪汙5億元被追查,縣府及稅捐處居然失火燒掉了所有帳冊。葛敬恩的女婿李卓芝暗中以40萬元買下價值數仟萬的台灣製紙大機器,被追討後才吐出5萬元而不了了之。
幾個月後,舊總督府門口出現一幅「狗來豬去」的諷刺漫畫。「阿山」成了貪汙、懶散、骯髒的中國人的代用語,「半山」或「重慶乞食」則是重慶的台灣人接收大員及大小嘍囉們。
1946年春節一幅對聯道盡了一切:「開口奴化,閉口奴化,卑躬屈膝,奴顏事仇,竟稱獨立自主;伸手要金,縮手要銀,與民爭利,唯利是圖,也說為民服務。」
台灣無可用之材,「台灣人不懂國語」,1946年初臺灣省行政長官公署正副18位首長中,只有「半山」宋斐如為教育處副處長;公署直屬各機關的16名主管中,只有台北保健館長王耀東、天然瓦斯研究所所長陳尚文兩個「半山」。17個縣市中只有3個半山的台北市長黃朝琴、新竹縣長劉啟光和高雄縣長謝東閔。農林檢察處長葉聲鐘的小老婆遞補為技正;台中法院院長的妻舅及親戚占該院近20人;高雄市長連謀帶來一大批福建惠安同鄉。阿里山鄒族的關東軍上尉湯守仁只配當國小體育代課教員。
長官公署控制全台灣的生產與投資,小學生買一支鉛筆或一本簿子都要向公家購買。短短一年半,台灣變成地獄,民生物價暴漲,台北市零售米價自1斤2毛漲到80元,上漲幅度高達400倍。天花、霍亂、鼠疫等早已絕跡的傳染病,又從祖國帶進來到處蔓延。
1947年2月27日下午,6個專賣局查緝員在台北市延平北路天馬茶房附近查緝私煙,來不及躲起來的林江邁被葉德根用手槍敲擊頭部,引起圍觀路人憤而喊打。傅學通在逃竄時開槍打死路人陳文溪。憤怒的群眾湧向西寧北路的建昌派出所要求懲兇,警局推說已將兇手交給憲兵團,部分群眾又湧向憲兵團。
2月28日上午9時,敲鑼打鼓的民眾湧向專賣局要討回公道,先搗毀延平北路派出所玻璃、物品等,10時再至重慶南路一段專賣局台北分局毆殺職員、搗毀器物、縱火,11時則湧向羅斯福路的專賣總局。下午1時,民眾湧至長官公署(行政院)請願,突遭樓上機槍掃射,多人傷亡。「打阿山」的怒火迅速燎原,一些人攻占新公園台灣廣播電台,向全國廣播「與其餓死,不如起來反抗,驅逐貪官汙吏,以求生存。」當晚,板橋、基隆民眾已起義,第二天桃園、新竹,接著台中、雲林、嘉義、台南、高雄以至花蓮、台東,在幾天內都回應台北的起義了。
3月1日,台北市參議員、制憲國代、省參議員、國民參政員共同組成「緝煙血案調查委員會」,陳儀又在3月1日指派周一鶚、任顯群等5名官方代表加入,改為「二二八事件處理委員會」。但是台中有謝雪紅,斗六、虎尾有陳篡地醫師,嘉義有三青團的陳復志,屏東有葉秋木副議長,全台各地領導青年們已經展開戰鬥了。
陳儀靜待南京方面蔣介石的下令,對愚直守法的台灣仕紳「以拖待變」。3月5日下午,他接獲蔣介石電文「陳長官,已派兵一團,並派憲兵一營,限本月7日由滬(上海)啟運,勿念。」的電報,開始準備鎮暴,但仍滿口謊言宣稱「中華民族最偉大的德行就是寬大,不以怨報怨。我們對本省自己的同胞,難道還不會發揮偉大的美德嗎?」
3月6日,高雄要塞司令彭孟緝率先行動,先扣押7名談判代表,旋即逮捕凃光明、范滄榕與曾豐明(後來就地正法),再派兵下山攻打高雄市政府、火車站與高雄中學,2、3天內高雄淪為人間煉獄。處委會宣傳組長王添灯抱最後一線希望,草擬《三十二條處理大綱》,主要內容為制定《省自治法》,6月前縣市長民選,警務處及各縣市警察局長應由本省人擔任,公營事業主管、地方法院各司法人員由本省人或過半數充任,保障基本人權、經濟管理合理化⋯⋯等等。特務混進中山堂大聲叫囂,混亂中又加上10條,包括本省陸海空軍應儘量採用本省人,撤銷警備總司令部,無條件釋放戰犯及漢奸嫌疑被拘禁者等條文,使國民政府以此為「叛亂」藉口進行軍事鎮壓。
3月7日下午5時,陳儀怒拒《四十二條處理大綱》。晚上,王添灯最後一次廣播後,警總參謀長柯遠芬心情愉快,「現在他們的陰謀暴露了,現在是我們理直氣壯了,我們苦守了8天,今天我們才掙得主動,黑暗的日子過去了,光明就在眼前,我們為什麼不高興呢?」
3月8日下午3時,兩營憲兵登陸基隆,開始掃射,9日凌晨,二十一師部隊自基隆抵達台北。10日陳儀宣布全省戒嚴,國軍開始由北向南展開「3月大屠殺」。至3月17日國防部長白崇禧率蔣經國來台,電告蔣介石:「全台秩序大致恢復,尚有少數奸黨與武裝暴徒合流,刻在追剿。」
事實上只有嘉義(紅毛埤、水上機場)、雲林(虎尾機場、樟湖戰役)及台中(二七部隊)真正與國軍戰鬥,其他各地的台灣人只有靜待二十一軍、彭孟緝部隊及特務的宰割。為什麼許多受過日本兵作戰訓練的台灣人終究慘敗呢?首先是仕紳們不希望「叛國」,只要求民主自治,面對2千年來從未有過的「人民作主」,只有皇帝獨裁的中國人,根本就是兔子向獅子要求和平理性,然後被獅子一口吞下肚。心存「我又沒犯法,幹嘛要跑」念頭的律師、醫生、教授們毫無警覺地受難。
各自為政,只有少數槍械,而且無法串聯(只有中部支援嘉義)的「台灣兵」,就在高唱特攻隊的《預料練》悲壯軍歌中,一批批陣亡或被捕殺。
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These Are The Tyrants And Robber Barons Of The 228 Massacre

With tears running down their faces, the Taiwanese people welcomed the arrival of the national army from the land of their ancestors.
But the crowds were surprised to see such skinny "liberators"; the soldiers wore straw sandals and rags, and carried pots and umbrellas on their backs. They defecate openly and spit everywhere. They didn't know how to use light switches or water faucets, and couldn't ride bicycles. They didn't pay at restaurants and didn't pay for goods. The Taiwanese were truly dumbfounded.
There was friction between the two peoples. Separated by 50 years of Japanese occupation, the Taiwanese were quite different from what the Chinese Nationalist soldiers expected.
"Why do you Taiwanese always act like conquered slaves, ignorant of your own roots?" said the soldiers. "If it hadn't been for us fighting the Japanese devils for eight years, Taiwan would never have seen its retrocession back to China!"
At the same time, the Chinese Nationalist (KMT) commanders were moving quickly to profit from their new positions. Chen Yi (陳儀) and his cronies began looting the old Japanese colonial government. Over night, the Republic of China's party-state regime suddenly owned over 20,000 residences in Taiwan, seven banks, 65 airports, nine hundred planes, 2000 tanks and trucks, and hundreds of thousands of guns. The value of their assets was $5.5 billion dollars.
They confiscated modern factories, hydraulic and electrical facilities, highways, railroads and sea ports. They snatched up 175 thousand hectares of farmland and 90 percent of Taiwan's forested lands. They took the schools, the hospitals and the theatres. They nationalized all the banks, insurance companies, oil and steel firms.
They divided industries into joint ventures, between national and provincial levels, or national and county levels. Some industries were directly controlled by the KMT. They divided the resources again and again, exhausting everything in one fell swoop.
Chen Yi wasn't the KMT's only bandit, there were hundreds of others robbing in broad daylight. The officials responsible for confiscating enemy property all had plentiful quantities of clothing, residences, automobiles, gold and women. They even began registering their names as owners of religious temples.
The former Japanese governor-general of Taiwan bribed Forward Command Control director Ge Jing-en (葛敬恩) with 120 kilograms of gold to let him escape his war criminal arrest warrant; Ge took the gold, and turned him over to Nanjing anyways.
Taiwan's provincial representatives thought the KMT had gone too far, and brought in the head of the Monopoly Bureau, a man by the name of Ren Wei-chun (任維鈞). When questioned why certain items like camphor wood and opium had gone missing, Ren said the bureau's entire inventory was eaten by termites. The auditorium roared with laughter.
Ren wasn't the only one who had it easy. Lu Kui-hsiang (陸桂祥), the Taipei County commissioner at the time, was investigated for embezzling 500 million Taiwan dollars; luckily, county officials and the revenue service got a tip to burn all the accounting records.
A few months later, a satirical comic called "the dogs leave and pigs move in" was pasted to the gate of the old governor-general's office. Also, the word "a-shan" (阿山) became a substitute for corrupt, lazy and dirty people from China; the word "banshan" (半山) or "Chongqing beggars" came to describe Taiwanese-born officials who served KMT officials in China.
According to these officials, Taiwan did not have any capable human capital because "Taiwanese people don't understand Mandarin Chinese". These elite KMT officials installed their own flunkies, with a few banshan officials handling minor portfolios.
The Taiwan Provincial Administrative Executive Office's controlled all production and investment. Nothing was provided by the state, and even a primary school pencil and notebook would have been purchased from the public sector.
The cost of daily goods exploded; rice went from 20 cents for a half kilo to 80 Taiwan dollars, rising 400 times its original price. Eradicated diseases like smallpox, cholera and the plague suddenly returned, brought by soldiers from the "motherland".
In just a year and a half, Taiwan turned into a living hell, and then one event captured the zeitgeist of the times.
On the afternoon of February 27th, six agents from the Monopoly Bureau were performing a thorough inspection of the Pegasus Tea House for contraband items; agent Yeh Te-ken (葉德根) came across housewife Lin Chiang-mai (林江邁) selling cigarettes, and struck a pleading Lin in the head. The crowd watching the scene was furious.
As the soldiers looked to flee an increasingly tense situation, bureau agent Fu Hsueh-tung (傅學通) fired his rifle, and killed a pedestrian, Chen Wen-hsi (陳文溪).
The crowd immediately made for the Kencho (建昌) police dispatch station on North Xining Road and demanded the agent be punished. The police said the accused will be handed over to the military police and a part of the crowd rushed off towards the military police legion.
On the 28th at 9:00am, a crowd gathered and moved towards the Monopoly Bureau to demand it return to a righteous path. But first, they smashed the windows of the Yanping North Road police station. By 10:00am, the crowd set a branch of Monopoly Bureau on Chongqing South road on fire, and beat to death a branch clerk. At 1:00 pm, the crowd took their problems to the Taiwan Provincial Administrative Executive Office (the present day Executive Yuan building). They were fired upon from the terrace, resulting in injuries and deaths.
When news of these events became known to the public, the popular rage to "beat a-shan" only metastasized. Locals in Taipei took over the radio station at New Park (today's 228 Memorial Park) to broadcast this message:
"Instead of starving to death, we should stand up and fight, root out corrupt officials, and prioritize our survival."
That night, cities in Northern Taiwan began their own uprisings. By the second night, towns and cities in central, southern and eastern Taiwan had joined the fight.
On March 1st, local Taiwanese politicians formed a committee to investigate the incident surrounding the tobacco seizure and how it led to bloodshed. Chen Yi instructed some of his confidantes to join the committee, and it was reorganized to become the "228 Incident Settlement Committee."
Many young Taiwanese leaders, however, had already begun the fight. There was Xie Xuehong (謝雪紅), a founder of the Taiwanese Communist Party and a leader of the "27 Brigade" a guerilla fighting force in Taichung. There was also Tan Chhoan-te (陳篡地) a medical doctor from Douliu who led a group to capture the air force base in Huwei.
Control was slipping from Chen Yi's grip, and with low troop numbers on the island, he stalled for time. On the 5th, he received a telegram from Chiang Kai-shek (蔣介石) that reinforcements from Shanghai would arrive soon, and Chen duly made preparations for the coming crackdown. In his reply to Chiang, he pretended as if a crackdown was not the intention of troop reinforcements:
"The greatest virtue of the Chinese people is tolerance without complaining. Shouldn't we be exercising greater virtue to our Taiwanese (bensheng) comrades?"
In Kaohsiung, where protests had also broken out, fortress commander Peng Meng-chi (彭孟緝) was losing patience. On the 6th, Peng gave orders to move on protesters that had gathered at the train station, city hall and Kaohsiung Senior High school. Three of Kaohsiung's most prominent community members were arrested and later executed, including Tu Kuang-ming (涂光明), Fan Tsang-jung (范滄榕) and Tseng Fengmin (曾豐明).
For three days, military forces killed indiscriminately in the streets of Kaohsiung; Peng was given a new moniker, "the butcher of Kaohsiung".
Meanwhile in Taipei, the 228 Incident Settlement Committee struggled to maintain control. The Committee's head of publicity, Ong Thiam-teng (王添灯), held one last hope for arbitration and drafted the "32 Demands".
But spies were sowing confusion at the 228 Settlement Committee meetings at Zhongshan Hall; they agitated to add an additional 10 demands, including preferential quotas for Taiwanese in the ROC military, abolishing the Garrison Command and an unconditional release of all war criminals and suspected detainees. Chen used these ludicrous demands as pretext to declare a "rebellion" and carry out mass suppression.
On the 7th at 5:00pm, Chen rejected the "42 Demands". The Garrison Command's secret police chief of staff Ko Yuan-fen (柯遠芬) was delighted by the turn of events. Ko reported the turn of events on the 28th as a "conspiracy theory" and said  "traitors were mixing with the local population to incite chaos."
"Their conspiracy is now exposed, and we are now justified to act. After struggling for 8 days, our dark days are over, and the light is in front of us. We should be rejoicing."
On the 8th at 3:00pm, two battalions landed in Keelung and started firing. The following day, the Chinese Nationalists 21st Division also landed at Keelung. Chen Yi declared martial law for the entire island on the 10th.
The Army then began its "March Massacre" (3月大屠殺) starting in the north and moving southwards.
By the 17th, the Army were declaring victory. Defense Minister Bai Chongxi (白崇禧) arrived in Taiwan with the generalissimo's son, Chiang Ching-kuo (蔣經國), and wired a message to Chiang Kai-shek that "order is mostly restored, and we are in pursuit of the last remaining rebels that joined forces with armed thugs."
In reality, only a few people had taken up arms, most notably, the 27 Brigade in Taichung, and attempts by the public to capture air bases in Chiayi and Huwei. Other 228 participants did not take arms, but were slaughtered all the same by the 21st Division and Peng Meng-chi's troops and state security units.
Why didn't they take up arms? Weren't some of them trained to fight by the Japanese military? Many of them were gentry who did not wish to "betray their country". Their only demand was democratic self-governance. They thought, for over 2000 years, the people of China have only known rule by an authoritarian emperor, and we have never "been masters of own home".
Members of the Taiwanese elite believed they had done nothing wrong by supporting the protests and uprisings, so there was no need to run away. Shortly after, a generation of Taiwan's best lawyers, doctors and professors faced immense suffering without warning.
As for Taiwan's "fighting units", their battle was doomed from the start. They weren't able to communicate or coordinate attacks, and firearms were in short supply. They were beaten down by the onslaught of National Army units, and shot down one after the other.
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