阿里山原住民的228故事:被羅織罪名,家人再見只剩骨灰罈
Fill 1
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義阿里山原住民,高一生。高英傑(左)與弟弟高英明於父親高一生墓前合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義阿里山原住民,高一生。高英傑(左)與弟弟高英明於父親高一生墓前合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
高一生(1908-1954) 籍貫:嘉義阿里山 受訪人:高英傑 關係:兒子
先父生於阿里山樂野村,族名Uyongu Yatauyungaga,念過台南師範學校,1930年回鄉教育子弟並擔任部落警察官駐在所甲種巡察,1946年被任命為第一屆吳鳳鄉長。1947年二二八後,派湯守仁等人率鄒族下山協助維持嘉義地方治安,並保護逃上阿里山的台南縣長袁國欽。先父懷抱「高山族自治縣」的理想,因情治單位截獲他的發函,而使計畫胎死腹中。1949年簡吉鼓勵他與林瑞昌、湯守仁等組織「高砂族自治會」。1950年簡吉被捕後,他與湯守仁等辦理自新,卻遭情治單位誘捕於竹崎,1954年被槍決。
父親熱愛德國哲學家尼采的著作,寫下《春之佐保姬》、《移民之歌》、《勤勞耕作歌》等作品。
Fill 1
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義阿里山原住民,湯守仁。湯進賢與父親湯守仁照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義阿里山原住民,湯守仁。湯進賢與父親湯守仁照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
湯守仁(1924-1954) 籍貫:嘉義阿里山 受訪人:湯進賢 關係:兒子
先父畢業於台南青年學校,1941年以軍屬身份在廣東的戰俘營當守衛,破例保送日本厚木士官學校,再入軍艦學校,結業後至日本關東軍服役,1945年8月被蘇聯紅軍俘虜至西伯利亞集中營,戰後回台灣,1946年為國民學校體育代課教員。
二二八後他率鄒族青年下山,參加攻打水上機場戰役,不久率眾回阿里山。4月7日高一生鄉長代辦「二二八自新」。1950年10月,因「山地工作委員會」案,1952年與高一生等被當局誘捕,1954年2月判死刑,4月17日遭槍決。我從小被其他小孩叫「匪諜的孩子」,仍謹記先父的遺書:「政府不要因為此事件,繼續對鄒族的人歧視、打壓和長期監控」,我堂舅武義德也坐牢23 年。
Fill 1
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義阿里山原住民,武義德。武義德遭處無期徒刑,被關23年是原住民的曼德拉。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義阿里山原住民,武義德。武義德遭處無期徒刑,被關23年是原住民的曼德拉。(攝影/潘小俠)
武義德(1923-2013) 籍貫:嘉義阿里山 受訪人:武義德 關係:本人
我是嘉義阿里山鄒族人,日本時代當過高砂義勇軍,二二八發生期間擔任村長,在吳鳳鄉鄉長高一生的指揮下,隨同湯守仁等鄒族人士,從阿里山下山攻打水上機場,不久返回山上,4月7日由高一生鄉長代表辦理集體自新。不料,1950年「山地工作委員會」案偵破,1952年遭保安司令部以「包庇匪諜」罪名將我逮捕,判處無期徒刑,執刑23年後我才重獲自由。
Fill 1
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義阿里山原住民,汪清山。汪枝美(右)、汪惠美與父親汪清山、母親汪清枝照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義阿里山原住民,汪清山。汪枝美(右)、汪惠美與父親汪清山、母親汪清枝照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
汪清山(1912-1954) 籍貫:嘉義阿里山 受訪人:汪枝美、汪惠美 關係:女兒
汪枝美:
父親是阿里山地區的嘉義縣警察局山地股巡官,平常樂觀且樂於助人。二二八期間,湯守仁率族人下山協助嘉義人攻打紅毛埤、水上機場,撤回山上後高一生鄉長代表大家辦理自新,不料政府於1952年突然將高一生、湯守仁及父親等6人誘捕,1954年4月17日羅織「判亂」的罪名槍決。我們有7個兄弟姊妹,大家眼睜睜地看到一個骨灰罈,多虧母親千辛萬苦把我們養大。
汪惠美:
我年紀最小,有一次看到一張小照片,十分喜歡,兄長們告訴我,那就是我的父親。我用了當時打工賺來的錢,把這張照片放大20倍,大家都很欣慰。二姐說過,父親在獄中曾寄回卡片安慰家人,我們歷經艱辛,但想到父親一生坦蕩蕩,又何必在意別人的眼光呢?
Fill 1
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義阿里山原住民,方義仲。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義阿里山原住民,方義仲。(攝影/潘小俠)
方義仲(1924-1954) 籍貫:嘉義阿里山 受訪人:方鈴美 關係:女兒
家父本是阿里山達邦村長,曾在二二八時率鄒族青年下山支援嘉義市民,3月5~7日攻打紅毛埤彈藥庫,奪取一些軍火。3月10日深夜至11日上午,他們獲悉嘉義市民與軍方開始和談,就徹夜撤離回到山上,後來鄉長高一生代表大家辦理自新,未受追究。不料到1950年台共領導蔡孝乾落網後,供出組織成員名單,國民政府秋後算帳,1952年父親與高一生、湯守仁、汪清山等6人被國民黨誘捕下山,1954年4月7日以叛亂罪執行死刑。
我當時年紀很小,只看到一個骨灰罈而已,媽媽一直抱著它痛哭。後來母親帶著我的祖母、哥哥和我到山上工寮吃地瓜、冷食苟且偷生。這就是我對父親的印象。
🄴🄽

🄴🄽

The 228 Massacre In Alishan: "All We Have Left Are Ashes And Bones"

The Tsou people of Alishan talk about their families' suffering during the 228 Massacre and White Terror period.
On February 28 1947, the clashes between soldiers and civilians in Taipei soon spread to every corner of Taiwan. In the City of Chiayi, fighting between the Chinese Nationalist (KMT) military police units and local Taiwanese militias had left the city in anarchy.
The militias tried to regain order, and sought the help of the indigenous Tsou people to patrol the streets. Lu Bin-chin (盧鈵欽), a dentist and secretary for the local chapter of the Three Principles Youth Group, called up Wufeng Township head Uyongu Yata'uyungana (高一生) to ask for assistance.
Yapasuyongʉ Yulunana (湯守仁), a teacher and former Japanese soldier, supported Lu's idea, but Yata'uyungana was worried about getting involved with the local militias. He eventually relented, and dispatched thirty Tsou youths to cover the city's neighbourhood watch.
On March the 7th, another thirty Tsou youths joined the Chiayi Militias in their attack on the Hongmaopi armoury to plug the militias lagging ammo and arms supplies. Their subsequent campaign to capture Tsui-siong Airport (水上機場) was unsuccessful, and The Tsou returned to Alishan by dark on March 16th.
Yata'uyungana and Yulunana were arrested for their role in the campaign, but were released through the lobbying efforts of Losing Watan (樂信·瓦旦) — a prominent Atayal leader who vowed not to take part in the 228 uprisings — and Tainan County commissioner Yuen Kuo-chin (袁國欽). Yata'uyungana and Yulunana promised to "turn over a new leaf" (自新) and were released.
In 1952, Yata'uyungana, Yulunana and Losing were arrested for supporting the establishment of a "Highland Aborigines Autonomous County", and for their supposed connections to the Chinese Communist Party's Taiwan Province Working Group.
Other members of the Tsou tribe and Atayal tribe were also arrested:
  • Loyeh village chief Tibusungu'Muknana (武義德), Dabang village water and sanitation head Voyʉe Toskʉ (杜孝生), and Loyeh village school teacher Wu Yi-heng (武義享) were sentenced to prison terms of 10 years to life imprisonment.
  • Dabang (達邦) village chief Fang I-chong (方義仲) was arrested alongside Yata'uyungana and Yulunana, and sentenced to death.
  • Alishan police inspector Mo`e Peyongsi (汪清山), who spoke fluent Japanese and was assigned to help foreigners in trouble, was sentenced to death.
  • Behui Tali (高澤照), an Atayal police inspector from Taoyuan County, Daxi Township was sentenced to death.   
Uyongu Yata'uyungana, Yapasuyongʉ Yulunana, Losing Watan, Fang I-chong, Mo`e Peyongsi and Behui Tali were executed by firing squad on April 17, 1954. In one fell swoop, Taiwan lost its most talented indigenous leaders in a generation.
Fill 1
Kao Ying-chieh (left) with his younger brother Kao Ying-ming (高英明) in front of their father's grave. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Kao Ying-chieh (left) with his younger brother Kao Ying-ming (高英明) in front of their father's grave. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Uyongu Yata'uyungana (高一生) (1908-1954) Hometown: Chiayi County, Alishan Township Interviewee: Kao Ying-chieh (高英傑) Relationship: son
My father was born in Loyeh village, and his indigenous name is Uyongu Yata'uyungaga. He went to Tainan Normal School. He then returned to his village in 1930 to teach, and also took up a job as a junior police officer of the tribe.
In 1946, he was appointed the first head of Wufeng County. After the February 28 uprisings, he sent Yapasuyongʉ Yulunana (湯守仁) to maintain social order in Chiayi City. He also helped Tainan County commissioner Yuen Kuo-chin (袁國欽) escape to Alishan.
My father always cherished the idea of establishing a "Highland Aborigines Autonomous County", but a letter he sent proposing the idea was discovered by the KMT's intelligence agency, and the idea was stopped dead in its tracks.
In 1949, Chien Chi (簡吉) — a classmate of Yata'uyungaga's at Tainan Normal School and a famous peasants' rights movement organizer — worked with father, Yapasuyongʉ Yulunana, and Losing Watan (林瑞昌) to establish the Takasagun Autonomous Governance Council (高砂族自治會). But in 1950, Chien was arrested, and father and Yulunana were forced to admit their wrong doings to the government (自新). He was later arrested in Zhuqi Township, and executed in 1954.
Father loved the writings of German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. He also wrote a number of classical compositions, including the "Spring Spirit of the Tsou", "the Migration Song", and the "Hard-at-work Farming Song".
Fill 1
Tang Chin-hsien with photo of his father Yapasuyongu Yulunana. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Tang Chin-hsien with photo of his father Yapasuyongu Yulunana. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Yapasuyongʉ Yulunana (湯守仁) (1924-1954) Hometown: Chiayi County, Alishan Township Interviewee: Tang Chin-hsien (湯進賢) Relationship: son
Father graduated from Tainan Youth School, and in 1941, he became a guard at a prisoner-of-war camp in Guangdong. Because of his exceptional work, they made an exception for him to attend Atsugi Officers' Academy, before he re-entered naval academy. He finished his studies while in service with the Imperial Japanese Army's Kwantung Army group in former Manchukuo. At the end of the war, he was arrested by the Red Army and sent to a prisoner-of-war camp in Siberia. He returned to Taiwan in 1946, and worked as a physical education instructor at a public school.
After the 228 uprising, he led a group of young Tsou to help capture Tsui-siong Airport. Not long afterwards, he led them back to Alishan. On April 7th, Wufeng township head Uyongu Yata'uyungana acted on father's behalf to admit wrongdoing during 228. Because father was connected to the establishment of the "Aboriginal Working Committee" by the Chinese Communist Party's Taiwan Province Working Group, he was arrested in 1952, then sentenced to death in February 1954.
When I was little, I was called the "child of the Communist spy." I've always remembered with reverence my father's last written words: "The government can't continue to treat us unfairly, suppress us, and control us, all because of this event." My uncle Tibusungu' Muknana (武義德) spent 23 years in jail because of 228.
Fill 1
Sentenced to life and locked in prison for 23 years, Tibsungu' Muknana is the Mandela of the Tsou people. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Sentenced to life and locked in prison for 23 years, Tibsungu' Muknana is the Mandela of the Tsou people. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Tibusungu' Muknana (武義德) (1923-2013) Hometown: Chiayi County, Alishan Township Interviewee: In his own words
I am of the Tsou people from Alishan, Chiayi. During the Japanese era, I was conscripted into the Takasago Volunteers unit (高砂義勇軍). I was the head of my village when the February 28 uprisings broke out. Under the leadership of Uyongu Yata'uyungana, Yapasuyongʉ Yulunana and myself, we lead a group of Tsou to capture the Tsui-siong Airport.
Out of nowhere, I was arrested by the Garrison Command, charged with "harbouring communist spies" in connection to the Aboriginal Working Committee case, and then sentenced to life in prison. After serving a 23 year sentence, I finally secured my release.
Fill 1
Wang Chi-mei (left) holds a photo of her mother Wang Ching-chi (汪清枝) and Wang Hui-mei holds a photo of her father Mo'e peyongsi. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Wang Chi-mei (left) holds a photo of her mother Wang Ching-chi (汪清枝) and Wang Hui-mei holds a photo of her father Mo'e peyongsi. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Mo'e peyongsi (汪清山) (1912-1954) Hometown: Chiayi County, Alishan Township Interviewee: Wang Chi-mei (汪枝美) Wang Hui-mei (汪惠美) Relationship: daughters
Wang Chi-mei: My father was an inspector for the Chiayi Police Bureau's Highland Aborigines unit. He was generally an optimistic person and happy to help others. After Uyongu Yata'uyungana admitted wrongdoing for the tribe, to our surprise, they still arrested my father. They were convicted on some trumped up charges of armed revolt, and then shot. We had seven brothers and sisters, and as we looked at our urn of ashes, everyone looked at us with pained eyes. Our mother went through untold hardships to raise us.
Wang Hui-mei: I am the youngest in my family, and I've never met my father. I remember once when I was little, I found a small picture of a man who I didn't recognize; I really liked it. My older brother told me the man in the picture was father. I then used some money that I saved from work, and reprinted the photo at 20 times the size. Everyone really liked it. My older sister once said that my father used to send us cards from prison to comfort the family. Our family often experienced hardships, but when I think of my father honest and forthright with others, what does it matter how other people see him?
Fill 1
Fang Ling-mei with a copy of the book 228 Witness (228見證者). Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Fang Ling-mei with a copy of the book 228 Witness (228見證者). Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Fang Yi-chung (方義仲) (1924-1954) Hometown: Chiayi County, Alishan Township Interviewee: Fang Ling-mei (方鈴美) Relationship: daughter
My father was the head of Dabang village, and assisted the Chiayi militias in capturing the Hongmaopi ammunition depot. He heard about the peace talks between the Chiayi Settlement Committee and the KMT on the evening of the 10th, and returned to the mountains later the next day. After Yata'uyungana admitted collective wrongdoing, the government said they would no longer pursue the matter.
But in 1950, the work committee head of the Taiwan Communist Party, Hsiao-chien (蔡孝乾), was arrested, and in order to secure his release, he provided the names of members of the Taiwan Communist Party. The KMT looked to settle accounts, and they arrested my father. I was quite young when he was sentenced to death, and I've only known an urn of ashes. My mother always holds the urn and cries. After father died, we lived in a small shed along with my grandfather and older brother, where we eked out a wretched existence. That's the impression I have of my father.
More English reads, please click here.

用行動支持報導者

優質深度報導必須投入優秀記者、足夠時間與大量資源⋯⋯我們需要細水長流的小額贊助,才能走更長遠的路。 竭誠歡迎認同《報導者》理念的朋友贊助支持我們!

© 2017 All rights Reserved

見證228

載入更多文章