嘉義的228故事:濫殺槍決 血染機場、火車站

嘉義

3月2日下午,由彰化、台中南下數十名青年在火車站與噴水池間號召市民火燒孫志俊市長官舍,孫市長跳牆逃奔憲兵隊。3日成立處委會後,由三青團分團主任陳復志領導兼作戰司令。布袋、鹽水、朴子、佳里、六腳、番路、斗六、台中、埔里、北港、台南工學院各隊至嘉義支援合攻憲兵隊。紅毛埤第19軍械庫、水上機場及東門町營區,晚上接收市政府。3月4日,孫市長與憲兵轉至嘉義中學山仔頂羅營長駐地。羅營長從山頂砲擊市區,造成多人死傷。不久,市長與外省人轉至水上機場。
3月5日,青年團書記盧鈵欽上阿里山請鄒族青年下山協助維持秩序。7日,鄒族加入攻擊紅毛埤,8日羅營長撤至機場。3月9日,台北方面空投機場補給品。民軍會攻機場無效。國軍衝至機場附近劉厝庄先殺3人,再把邱垂榮、邱旺松、邱連春、羅州等10人押至機場邊濫殺。27歲的陳水蓮被兵仔洗劫一空,先關在倉庫內,逃過一劫。3月12日,四三六團一個營空運至水上機場,南部防衛司令部(彭孟緝)也增援嘉義國軍。處委會請陳復志、陳澄波、潘木枝、柯麟、林文樹等人當晚進入機場談判,立刻遭逮補,只放走女議員邱鴛鴦及劉傳來等3人。
3月11日陸軍第二十一師四三○團一個營到達機場,南部援軍亦抵嘉義。12日,羅營長攻入市區內,13日一四六旅四三六團進入市區。3月18日,陳復志遊街示眾後被槍決於嘉義火車站前。3月23日,陳陣、盧鎰、蘇憲章(新生報嘉義主任)、陳容貌(被控自稱代理警察局長)、施珠文、林登科、黃水樹、薛皆得等人被槍決。25日,陳澄波、潘木枝、柯麟、盧鈵欽4人被槍決。
4月22日,朴子鎮長黃媽典被槍決。《和平日報》業務組職員羅金成避難一年,考進監獄從看守當到部長,1952年因其兄羅雨祥涉及蔡孝乾案,10個月後兄弟雙雙遇害。畫家陳澄波的弟子歐陽文,1950年在台南被捕,判刑12年。方賴嫑纏在3月初於家中遭流彈擊中,當晚兵仔闖入家中搶劫並非禮她,還打死次子方振來。經營木屐買賣的陳甜桃女士在自家騎樓中流彈身亡。江振猷出門為母親買藥,至今一去不返。林黃紡在回新港途中左大腿中流彈,兵仔闖入屋內抓走她的丈夫林金城,揚言要20萬元才放人,最終他死於非命。公路局駕駛林蔡桐駛進嘉義車站時被兵仔抓走,一去不返。在梅山開西裝店的許三貴被福州仔公報私仇,5月5日遊街示眾後遭槍決。
南靖糖廠會計鍾季友與嘉中校長陳慶元的兒子陳顯宗以及賴耀欽、邱創仁等4人好心載兩個外省人去黨部,卻在崎仔頭遭兵仔攔截且綁在樹上活活刺死。
鄒族在3月16日深夜已回阿里山,不料,1952年高一生與方義仲、汪清山、湯守仁等被秋後算帳逮補,1954年4月以叛亂罪名遭槍決;武義德判無期徒刑。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義,陳澄波。陳重光與父親陳澄波自畫像合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義,陳澄波。陳重光與父親陳澄波自畫像合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
陳澄波(1895-1947) 籍貫:嘉義市 受訪人:陳重光 關係:兒子
先父是台灣美術家,念過國語學校及東京美術學校,1926年以「嘉義街外」畫作入選第7回帝國美術展,畢業後赴中國上海新華及昌明藝術專校教西畫兼兩校主任。1931年以「清流」畫作參展芝加哥世界博覽會。1933年返台參與創立「台陽美術協會」。戰後他參加歡迎國民政府籌備會,並加入三青團,擔任嘉義市自治協會理事。1946年當選嘉義市參議員。
1947年3月5日水上機場駐軍被民兵包圍,他因通曉北京話,被處委會推舉為談判「和平使」。3月11日與陳復志、柯麟、潘木枝等人進入水上機場談判,隨即被捕,3月25日未經公開審判在嘉義火車站前遭公開槍決。暴屍一日後先母張捷毅然把屍體運回家中,拍下遺體慘狀,為二二八留下見證。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義,潘木枝。潘信行與父親潘木枝照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義,潘木枝。潘信行與父親潘木枝照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘木枝(1902-1947) 籍貫:嘉義市 受訪人:潘信行 關係:兒子
先父念台南師範學校,1923年分發水林公學,1929年考進日本東京醫專,3年後畢業在東京實習,1935年1月回嘉義市主持向生醫院,為本地神醫。戰後他加入國民黨並以最高票當選第一屆嘉義市參議員及副議長。
1947年二二八後他免費替被集中在中山堂的中國籍民眾看診。3月3日成為二二八處委會委員。3月11日,他代理議長鍾家成去水上機場,與陳澄波、柯麟等人同赴機場談判,不料除邱鴛鴦、劉傳來、王鍾麟等人外,先父等5人被扣押,3月25日,未經公開審判,與陳澄波、柯麟、盧鈵欽等4名市參議員,被押往火車站前公開槍決。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義,陳水蓮。陳水蓮手指右臂槍傷見證二二八。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義,陳水蓮。陳水蓮手指右臂槍傷見證二二八。(攝影/潘小俠)
陳水蓮(1921-2013) 籍貫:嘉義市 受訪人:陳水蓮 關係:本人
我念過白川公學校,日本時代在市役所勸業課擔任農事指導員,兼壯丁團員。1947年3月9日,一百多個兵仔從水上機場衝進劉厝里時,到處搶劫,我身上的600元和西裝都被他們搶奪,我和一名雇工長一起被綁,丟進對面的穀倉裡,後來兵仔衝進來,朝我右臂開槍後,揚長而去,他們搶走一箱一箱的東西,忘了我和那個長工丟在穀倉裡。其他另一處有13人被綁走,半路在溝仔邊槍決,我卻僥倖躲過一劫,成為劉厝里唯一生還者的見證人。
台灣人對外省人的印象很差,台灣人這種記憶永遠不會忘記,即使經過65年後,我仍內心痛恨外省人的殘暴。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義,邱連春。邱連春之子邱慶雲(右)與陳水蓮合影於劉厝庄現址。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義,邱連春。邱連春之子邱慶雲(右)與陳水蓮合影於劉厝庄現址。(攝影/潘小俠)
邱連春(1899-1947) 籍貫:嘉義市 受訪人:邱慶雲 關係:兒子
先父以務農為主。1947年3月9日,國府軍以飛機運抵嘉義,聯合退守水上機場的國軍外出掃蕩;當天傍晚包圍劉厝庄,先父在家中牛欄看顧牛隻,躲避不及而慘遭兵仔射殺,我與母親躲於臥室床底遭射一槍,幸未擊中;另劉厝庄庄民12人被押往機場,在半途中卻被活活打死,全部屍體棄置於三和村與機場交界的道江圳溝底。
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義,邱旺松。邱旺松之子邱桂田。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義,邱旺松。邱旺松之子邱桂田。(攝影/潘小俠)
邱旺松(1918-1947) 籍貫:嘉義市 受訪人:邱桂田 關係:兒子
二二八時我才6歲,當時兵仔從水上機場衝來,大家都躲在劉厝里莊內中央的大厝內,兵仔當場撥開牽著我手的父親。當時我們躲在對面里長那邊,大家以為沒事,尤其有位兵仔班長會講台語。不料兵仔把十幾個人全部抓走,後來聽說他們全數被打死在機場旁邊的水溝旁,沒人敢去收屍,最後還是偷偷地把屍體抬走,埋在路旁。
我至今仍恨外省人打死我老爸,十分仇恨,當時我父親才29歲,是一個普通的作田人,什麼也沒參加,卻白白的喪命,情何以堪?為什麼外省人那麼殘忍?
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潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義,邱垂榮。邱顯郎與父親邱垂榮照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
潘小俠「見證228」影像計畫,嘉義,邱垂榮。邱顯郎與父親邱垂榮照片合影。(攝影/潘小俠)
邱垂榮(1906-1947) 籍貫:嘉義市 受訪人:邱顯郎 關係:兒子
先父母從桃園到嘉義,先在鹿港學作鐵,後來同3個弟弟在嘉義開「深造堂」做米果餅,也在劉厝當佃農。1947年3月9日,國軍從水上機場衝出來,那天傍晚,5、6百個中國兵從北回歸線往玉山路攻到劉厝庄,見人就殺,他們認定當地就是反抗者的集結處,先父與當地農民紛紛被捕遇害。
之後母親帶我們回工廠作鐵,我也四處打零工,25歲才去當兵,退伍後經介紹考進電信局工作,後來終於考上業務士,辛苦撫養母親及5個孩子,直到60歲才退休。先母99歲高齡才辭世,80多歲時還硬朗有骨氣地北上參加二二八遊行請願活動。
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The 228 Massacre In Chiayi: "The Airport And Train Station Were Washed With Blood"

The families of 228 Massacre victims in Chiayi recount the losing battle of the local militias and the senseless violence that came afterwards.
On the afternoon of March 2nd 1947, a few dozen youths from Changhua and Taichung stood in front of the fountain at the Chiayi train station, and called upon their fellow citizens to set fire to the mayor's residence. The mayor quickly jumped the residence walls, and fled to the military police for help.
Word of the February 28 uprising in Taipei — and the subsequent formation of the 228 Incident Settlement Committee to negotiate the demands of the Taiwanese to the Chinese Nationalists (KMT) — had reached Chiayi.
On March 3rd, the Chiayi branch of the Settlement Committee was established. Tan Hok-tsi (陳復志), the local chapter leader of the KMT-affiliated Three Principles Youth Group, was appointed commanding officer of the local militia. Local militias were forming all over central Taiwan, including some from the Tsou in Alishan, and they decided to meet in Chiayi to coordinate an attack on the military police.  
But the KMT was well equipped to fend off an attack. On the 4th, the mayor and the military police retreated to an encampment in Chiayi's Sanzaiding neighbourhood. From there, the KMT bombarded the city center from the hills, leading to many civilian casualties. Not long after, the mayor and other Mainlanders retreated to Tsui-siong Airport (水上機場 present-day Chiayi Airport) on Hongmaopi (紅毛埤) Mountain.
The Chiayi militias captured a KMT ammunitions depot on Hongmaopi on the 7th, but there were few guns and ammo left for them to use. They needed to capture Tsui-siong Airport to stem the flow of KMT soldiers coming into Chiayi. On March 9th, KMT soldiers at Chiayi received an airdrop from Taipei, and the militia's plan to capture Tsui-siong was not successful.
Emboldened with new supplies and ammo, soldiers stormed nearby Liucuo Village (劉厝里) from the airport, killing three people on the way there, and ten more people on the way back.
On March 11th, a battalion from the 21st Division arrived at the airport and the reinforcements pressed on into Chiayi. The next day, another regiment and the Southern Defense Command led by Peng Meng-chi (彭孟緝) touched down at the airport. That night, the Settlement Committee asked Tan Hok-tsi, Tan Ting-pho (陳澄波), Phuan Bok-tsi (潘木枝) and Kho Lin (柯麟) to go the airport to negotiate with the KMT. Upon entering the airport premises, they were arrested, and only the three female members of the Settlement Committee were allowed to leave.
On March 25th, Tan Ting-pho, Phuan Bok-tsi, Kho Lin and Lu Bin-chin were executed.Chiayi saw some of the worst civilian casualties of the 228 Massacre:
  • On March 18th, Tan Hok-tsi was paraded through the streets and executed at gunpoint in front of the train station.  
  • Painter Tan Ting-pho's disciple Ouyang Wen (歐陽文) was arrested in Tainan in 1950 and sentenced to 12 years in prison.  
  • On a night in early March, Png Nai-biao (方賴嫑) was struck by a stray bullet and ignored as soldiers looted her home and beat her second son Png Tsin-lai (方振來) to death.
  • On March 23rd, Soo Hien-tsiong (蘇憲章), director of the Shin Sheng Daily News (新生報), was executed among others.  
  • On April 22nd, Ng Ma-tian (黃媽典), mayor of Puzi (朴子) was executed.
  • Wooden clogs seller Tan Tinn-to (陳甜桃) was killed by a stray bullet as she stood in the arcade in front of her own house.  
  • Kang Tsin-iu (江振猷) left his home to buy medicine for his mother and never returned.  
  • Soldiers stormed the home of Lim Kim-sing (林金城) and demanded 200,000 yuan for his release. He ultimately died a violent death.
  • Lim Kim-sing's wife, Lim Ng-phang (林黃紡) was injured in a separate incident during 228. On her way home to Hsinkang, Ng-phang caught a stray bullet in her left thigh.
  • Lim Tshua-tang (林蔡桐), a driver for the Highway Bureau (公路局), was arrested as he entered Chiayi Station and was never seen again.  
  • Hi Sam-kui (許三貴), a tailor in Meishan, was arrested by a Fujianese official over a private dispute, and on May 5th he was paraded through the streets and executed.  
  • Four good samaritans — Tsiong Kui-iu (鍾季友) an accountant for the Taiwan Sugar Company, Tan Hian-tsong (陳顯宗) son of Chiayi Middle School principal Tan Khing-guan (陳慶元), as well as Lua Iau-khim (賴耀欽) and Khu Tshong-jin (邱創仁) — encountered a group of KMT soldiers at Kia-a-thau while escorting two Mainlanders to a KMT office. They were tied to a tree and stabbed to death for their efforts.
  • In 1952, Peace Times (和平日報) reporter Lo Kim-tshiann (羅金成) and his brother Lo Hoo-siong (羅雨祥) were arrested for their connection to the "Tsai Hsiao-chien (蔡孝乾) case". Tsai was a spy for the Chinese Communist Party who revealed his network of contacts to the KMT. Lo Kim-tshiann and his brother Lo Hoo-siong were later executed, and Tsai joined the KMT's intelligence division.
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Chen Chung-kuang with a self-portrait of his father Tan Ting-pho. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Chen Chung-kuang with a self-portrait of his father Tan Ting-pho. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Tan Ting-pho (陳澄波)(1895-1947) Hometown: Chiayi City Interviewee: Chen Chung-kuang (陳重光) Relationship: son
My late father was a painter who studied at the National Language University (國語學校 a Japanese-era school) as well as the Tokyo University of the Arts. In 1926 his oil painting "Street of Chiayi" (嘉義街外) was selected for the seventh Imperial Art Exposition. After graduating, he went to Shanghai and became director of Western art at two art schools in the city. In 1931 his oil painting "Lucid Water" (清流) was exhibited at the Chicago World Fair. In 1933, he returned to Taiwan to found the Tai-iong Fine Arts Society (台陽美術協會).  
After the war, he was on the organizing committee to welcome the Chinese Nationalist government, and joined the local branch of the Three Principles Youth Group (三青團). He also served as a member of the Chiayi City Self-Governance Association, and in 1946, he was elected to Chiayi City Council.
On March 5th 1947, when the Tsui-siong Airport garrison was surrounded by militias, he was selected to join the peace envoy because he spoke fluent Mandarin. Upon arriving at the airport to negotiate with the KMT on March 11th, he was arrested, along with Tan Hok-tsi, Kho Lin and Phuan Bok-tsi.
On March 25th, they were publicly executed in front of Chiayi Station without trial. Their corpses were publicly displayed for a day before my mother, Chang Chieh (張捷), resolved to take father's corpse home. She photographed his remains as evidence of the 228 Massacre.
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Pan Hsin-hsing with a photo of his father Phuan Bok-tsi. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Pan Hsin-hsing with a photo of his father Phuan Bok-tsi. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Phuan Bok-tsi (潘木枝)(1902-1947) Hometown: Chiayi City Interviewee: Pan Hsin-hsing (潘信行) Relationship: son
My late father studied at Tainan Normal School (台南師範學校 now National University of Tainan). In 1923 he was assigned to work at the Shuilin Common School (水林公學). In 1929 he tested into Tokyo Medical University. He returned to Chiayi in 1935 to take charge of Siang-sheng Hospital (向生醫院), where he was highly regarded (本地神醫).  After the war, he joined the KMT and was elected to the first Chiayi City Council with the highest number of votes, and became the deputy chair.
After the Taipei uprising of February 27-28, he volunteered to treat Chinese immigrants who had gathered at Zhongshan Hall. On March 3rd, he became a member of the 228 Incident Settlement Committee. On March 11th, he stood in for chairman Tsing Ka-sing (鍾家成) to go to Tsui-siong Airport for negotiations with Tan Ting-pho, Kho Lin and others. My father did not expect that they would be detained. On March 25th, he was executed without trial in front of the train station along with Tan Ting-pho, Kho Lin, Lu Bin-ching, and four other city councillors.
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Tan Sui-lian points to where the bullet grazed his right shoulder. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Tan Sui-lian points to where the bullet grazed his right shoulder. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Tan Sui-lian (陳水蓮) (1921-2013) Hometown: Chiayi City Interviewee: in his own words
I attended the Shirakawa Common School (白川公學校 -- Taiwanese attended "common" schools during segregation under Japanese colonial rule; it is now Datong Elementary), and during the Japanese era I worked in city hall, where I lead occupational courses and acted as an agricultural instructor. I was also a member of the Able-Bodied Regiment (壯丁團 -- part of the community-based baojia law-enforcement system employed by the Japanese).
On March 9th, 1947, more than a hundred soldiers stormed Liucuo Village, looting homes left and right. They took the 600 yuan I had on hand, as well as my suit. A foreman and I were taken and tossed into a nearby warehouse. When soldiers later burst into the warehouse, they fired a bullet over my right shoulder, swaggered off, and began to pilfer everything in sight, forgetting that the foreman and I were even there. There were 13 people in the village who were taken away, executed on the way back to the airport and thrown into a ditch. I was lucky to avoid this fate, and I am the only survivor to witness what happened at Liucuo Village that day.
Taiwanese people do not have a good impression of Mainlanders and will never forget what happened that day. Even after 65 years, from the bottom of my heart, I loathe the brutality of those Mainlanders.
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Chiou Ching-yun (right) and Tan Sui-lian in Liucuo Village. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Chiou Ching-yun (right) and Tan Sui-lian in Liucuo Village. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Khu Lian-tshun (邱連春) (1899-1947) Hometown: Chiayi City Interviewee: Chiu Ching-yun (邱慶雲) Relationship: son
My late father was a farmer. On March 9th 1947, KMT soldiers arrived by plane to Chiayi, and the soldiers who had retreated to Tsui-siong Airport struck out. That evening, they surrounded Liucuo Village while my father was at home watching over the cattle in the pen. Unable to hide, he was shot dead, while my mother and I hid under the bed inside. A bullet flew into the bedroom and luckily missed. Twelve other residents of Liucuo were taken back toward the airport, and halfway there, they were all killed. Their corpses were discarded in a drainage ditch between the airport and Sanhe Village (三和村).
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Chiu Gwei-tien, son of Khu Ong-tshing. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Chiu Gwei-tien, son of Khu Ong-tshing. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Khu Ong-tshing (邱旺松) (1918-1947) Hometown: Chiayi City Interviewee: Chiu Gwei-tien (邱桂田) Relationship: son
I was six years old when the 228 Massacre happened. When the soldiers stormed Liucuo, everyone hid in the big house in the centre of the village. Father was holding my hand when they barged into the house. They parted our hands, and took him away. We didn't think anything bad was happening; one of the captains could even speak Taiwanese. We never expected that they would take ten or so people away. Later we heard that they were all killed in a ditch by the airport, including father. No one dared to retrieve the bodies, and eventually people went over and quietly buried the bodies by the side of the road.
Even today, I still hate the Mainlanders who killed my father, I very much hate them. At the time my father was only 29. He was an ordinary farmer who didn't participate in anything. He died for nothing, how can I stand this? How can Mainlanders be so cruel?
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Chiu Hsien-lang with a photo of his father Khu Sui-ing. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Chiu Hsien-lang with a photo of his father Khu Sui-ing. Photo courtesy of Pan Hsiao-hsia, from the book Testimonies of 228 (見證228).
Khu Sui-ing (邱垂榮) (1906-1947) Hometown: Chiayi City Interviewee: Chiu Hsien-lang (邱顯郎) Relationship: son
My late father and mother were from Taoyuan. They studied metalworking in Lukang before moving to Chiayi where my father and his two brothers started a business making rice crackers; he also worked as a tenant farmer in Liucuo. On the night of March 9th, five or six hundred Chinese soldiers descended from the airport into Liucuo. They killed everyone in sight, believing that the village was a gathering spot for rebels. My father and other local farmers were arrested and murdered one-by-one.
Afterwards, my mother took us back to the metal factory, and I helped out wherever I could. I didn't do my military service until I was 25, and after I was discharged I was connected to work at the Telecommunications Bureau. Eventually I passed the professional exam and worked hard to provide for my mother and five children until I retired at age 60. My mother lived until she was 99, and even in her 80s she had the health and spirit to head north and participate in 228-related demonstrations.
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