Chris van Laak/葉門人在東非:那些流離與難民營裡的臉
從2015年開始,近5年的葉門內戰,重重摧毀了葉門這個人口超過2,000萬人的阿拉伯世界東陲國家。因沙烏地阿拉伯為首的聯盟、由伊朗撐腰的叛亂分子、及多個教派組織相爭而產生的這場戰爭,摧毀了葉門人的生計和社會連結,至少有100萬人被迫離開國家,跟著先民移民的路線逃到東非、成為難民。
從1990年初起,葉門就開始接收大量來自索馬利亞的難民,如今,立場翻轉。葉門難民逃往歐洲的路線被世界上最乾燥的沙漠阻隔,周邊國家更將他們當作安全威脅,紛紛關閉邊境。在葉門與非洲之間,難民的流向反轉了——或者說,這裡成了一個十字路口——難民從葉門流向非洲,同時亦從非洲流向葉門。
就像前幾代人一般,葉門難民融入進非洲當地、和僑民社區,幾個世紀以來的移民來往,在國家與人民之間交織出許多故事。
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位於東非索馬利亞的葉門難民聚落。
位於東非索馬利亞的葉門難民聚落。
Almost 5 years of war have devastated Yemen, a country with more than 20 million inhabitants at the eastern edge of the Arabian world. Fought between a Saudi-Arabian led coalition, supposedly Iranian backed insurgents, and multiple other factions, the war has depleted the livelihood of Yemenis and destroyed social bonds. At least one million people have left the country, following the footsteps of generations who have emigrated before.
While Yemenis have left to labor abroad for centuries, the country has hosted large numbers of Somali refugees since the early 1990s. Nowadays the routes for Yemeni refugees towards Europe is blocked by one of the driest deserts in the world and closed borders to countries that treat Yemenis as security threats. The route for refugees has reversed, or in parts it has become a crossroad, from Yemen to Africa and from Africa to Yemen.
In Africa, Yemeni refugees merge into diaspora communities, and local communities alike, just like generations did before. Centuries of back and forth migration have created intertwined life-stories between people and nations.

Asad

阿薩德(Asad)剛抵達索馬利亞一週,經歷數年的戰火摧殘後,他在索馬里漁民的協助下度渡海,在索馬利蘭一個小港口Berbera附近上岸。
Asad arrived just a week ago. After enduring the war and hardships for years, he made it across the sea with the help of Somali fisherman, who brought him ashore near the small port of Berbera in Somaliland.

Nyusha

妮猶莎(Nyusha)父親是葉門人,母親是索馬利亞-衣索比亞混血兒,她在衣索比亞首都阿的斯阿貝巴(Addis Ababa)出生、成長,是當地擁有近百年歷史的富裕社群成員之一。
Nyusha is the daughter of a Yemeni father and a Somali-Ethiopian mother. Born and raised in Addis Ababa, she's growing up as a member of an almost century old, affluent community in the Ethiopian capital.

Yussuf

尤梭夫(Yussuf)對外自稱Joe,操著一口在紐約學到的濃厚美國腔,他離開祖國葉門已經3年,現在則是「準備要重回巔峰」。
Yussuf goes by the name Joe and, as he old, New York is where he acquired his thick American accent. He left his native country Yemen 3 years ago, and now, he's“hustling back to the top”.

Khader

哈德(Khader)是一位公路自行車手,曾代表葉門參加國際賽。他在訓練期間,多次遭受到軍隊和叛亂分子的威脅,雖然始終無法加入隊伍,但他還是持續在吉布地、索馬利蘭或衣索比亞騎車。
Khader is a road cyclist, who has represented Yemen in international races. During training sessions on public roads, he got threatened by armies and insurgents one too many times. Unable to join a team, he keeps on cycling, be it in Djibouti, Somaliland or Ethiopia.

Amira

艾米拉(Amira)原本在葉門首都沙那就讀大學,但就在期末考的前幾週,學校因為戰爭關閉。由於無法繼續攻讀工程學,她轉而在索馬利蘭首都哈爾格薩攻讀醫學,她的兒子在難民營中誕生。
Weeks before her final exams, Amira's university in Sana'a closed due to the war. Unable to pursue her studies in Engineering, she started studying Medicine in Hargeisa, the capital of Somaliland. Her son was born in a refugee camp on the route.

Hussein

當人們逃離葉門時,胡賽(Hussein)選擇留下來、經營進出口貨物事業,並靠這發了一點小財。他的生意還包括從葉門出口咖啡,這是一項依賴衣索比亞和肯亞咖啡工業的事業。
Hussein has made a small fortune. While many left Yemen, he stayed and has continued to export and import goods. That includes exporting coffee from Yemen, a business that relies on the coffee infrastructure in Ethiopia and Kenya.

Mustafa

除了「幸運」的少數人,有更多組織在戰爭時期獲得了繁榮的發展。慕達發(Mustafa)是葉門穆斯林兄弟會衍生政黨葉門改革集團(Al-Islah)的代表 ,他現在時常奔走東非各地談生意。在東非幾國的首都,道德或許與保守價值觀無法兼容,但他們都有顧及到這些阿拉伯商人的需求。
Not just lucky individuals, whole groups flourish in times of war. Mustafa represents the Islah Party, the Yemeni offspring of the Muslim brotherhood and he travels all over East Africa for business. In the capitals of East African nations, morals are maybe not compatible with conservative values, but the needs of Arab businessmen are taken care of.
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Ismail

隨著從嚴解釋《古蘭經》教義的思想在葉門成為主流,許多自由派的葉門人選擇離開。伊斯梅(Ismail)也選擇投入於另一個更自由的社會,他開啟新的生活方式、甚至接受目前在衣索比亞貴為主流的基督教信仰。
While strict interpretations of the Quran have come to dominate Yemen, many liberally minded Yemenis have left. Ismail has immersed to a more liberal society, adopted a new lifestyle and even the Christian faith dominant in Ethiopia.

Mohammed and Mustafa

穆漢米(Mohammed)沒有關於戰爭的記憶,相反地,他的哥哥慕達發(Mustafa)心靈因戰爭嚴重受創。索馬利蘭雖然有提供基礎教育,但卻鮮少有對特殊需求兒童提供幫助的資源。
Mohammed doesn't remember the war, while his older brother Mustafa is heavily traumatized. While basic education is provided in Somaliland, there is very little assistance for children with special needs.

Saeed

塞伊(Saeed)在穿越亞丁灣和索馬利亞的爭議領土時,被軍方和警方逮捕,並被拘留在各個警察局、和由廢棄加油站改裝的簡易監牢裡。
Saeed has made his way across the Gulf of Aden and through disputed territories in Somalia, he has been detained by militias and the police, in official police stations and makeshift prisons in abandoned gas stations – before making it to safety.

Kareem

來自埃及的卡林(Kareem),過去為一家沙烏地阿拉伯的科技公司工作,在一次破產官司之後,他被監禁、護照被扣押,不得不步行離開這個國家——他一路行經沙漠、葉門、索馬利蘭,一直到更遠的地方。
Kareem is from Egypt and used to work for a tech company in Saudi-Arabia. After a legal scrimmage over a bankruptcy, he was imprisoned, his passport was withheld, and he had to leave the country on foot - through the desert, through Yemen, through Somaliland and further.

Abdulrahman

阿布涅達曼(Abdulrahman)在衣索比亞開一家小餐廳,他在葉門的老家位於鄉下高地,雖然相對安全,卻沒有任何就業機會。來到非洲工作,讓他至少有錢可以寄給女兒們。
Abdulrahman could open a small restaurant in Ethiopia. While his family in the rural highlands of Yemen are relatively safe, all employment opportunities got depleted at home. From Africa he can send money to provide for his daughters.

Fuat

福艾(Fuat)在索馬利蘭為一些小商店做室內裝潢。近年來,索馬利亞的室內裝潢產業,正逐漸被有建造精美宮殿和清真寺百年傳承經驗的葉門木匠們所主宰。
Fuat builds interiors for small shops and interiors in Somaliland – an industry that is more and more dominated by carpenters from Yemen, who are known for building on a century old tradition of beautifully decorated palaces and mosques.

Faia

費雅(Faia)在沙烏地阿拉伯工作時與來自葉門的丈夫相識結婚。但戰爭開始後,丈夫被沙國驅逐,因為費雅的簽證和他是連動的,所以也必須跟著離開。她帶著女兒薩米拉(Samira)回到父母在北衣索比亞的住所,然而她的丈夫卻仍待在葉門。
Faia got married to her Yemeni husband while working in Saudi Arabia. With the beginning of the war, he got expelled, and she had to leave too, as her visa dependent on his. With their daughter Samira, she moved back in to her parents in northern Ethiopia, while her husband is still in Yemen.

Abdikareem and Kaafiyo

衣索比亞裔索馬利亞人阿迪卡林(Abdikareem)夢想在杜拜工作、過上更好的生活,然而他最終只能淪落到葉門難民營。卡菲歐(Kaafiyo)的兄弟則是仍然被拘留在葉門。
Abdikareem is an Ethiopian Somali who dreamed of a better life working in Dubai, but he only made to a refugee camp in Yemen from where he recently returned. Kaafiyo's brother is still detained in Yemen.

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